157, 176, 192. Negotiations with Portugal for Charles's marriage to Catherine of Braganza began during his father's reign and upon the restoration, Queen Luísa of Portugal, acting as regent, reopened negotiations with England that resulted in an alliance. Charles, a patron of the arts and sciences, founded the Royal Observatory and supported the Royal Society, a scientific group whose early members included Robert Hooke, Robert Boyle and Sir Isaac Newton. Her close reading of the Kings’ speeches in chapter three however is a very valuable exercise. 90 Grey, , Debates, II, 110Google Scholar; C.J., IX, 276, 278; see also C.J., VIII, 104. Marshall J. Charles, kept poor by his follies and vices, wanted money. It sought to discourage non-conformity to the Church of England and passed several acts to secure Anglican dominance. 125 H.M.C. 138 Exact Collection, p. 47; see also C.J., IX, 685; Grey, , Debates, VIII, 163, 166–7Google Scholar. "shouldUseHypothesis": true, Dubbed the Cavalier Parliament, it was overwhelmingly Royalist and Anglican. "[90] The claim to France was only nominal, and had been asserted by every English monarch since Edward III, regardless of the amount of French territory actually controlled. Beaufort, p. 111Google Scholar; Exact Collection, pp. My text is taken from Macaulay, who wrote of the Cavalier Parliament of 1661–78: King Charles II, the first monarch to rule after the English Restoration. 77 C.J., IX, 287, 298; Grey, , Debates, II, 348Google Scholar; see also, ibid., pp. As a patron of education, he founded a number of schools, including the Royal Mathematical School in London and The King's Hospital in Dublin, as well as the Erasmus Smith schools in various parts of Ireland. [73] Charles had a laboratory among his many interests, where prior to his illness he had been experimenting with mercury. The Cavalier Parliament opposed the Declaration of Indulgence on constitutional grounds by claiming that the king had no right to arbitrarily suspend laws passed by Parliament. (2013). House of Lords, 1678–88, pp. Some ‘tacks’ were approved by the House and reached the statute book (Chandaman, , English Public Revenue, pp. Traditional celebrations involved the wearing of oak leaves but these have now died out. Charles withdrew the Declaration, and also agreed to the Test Act, which not only required public officials to receive the sacrament under the forms prescribed by the Church of England,[57] but also later forced them to denounce transubstantiation and the Catholic Mass as "superstitious and idolatrous". Charles II died in February and James II's Parliament first met in May, but after November was continuously prorogued until it was dissolved in July 1687. 26 Barrillon to Louis XIV, 22 Dec. 1678 (n.s. 10 Dering, Diaries and Papers, Introduction and passim. 31 Burnet, G., History of my own Time (6 vols., Oxford, 1833), II, 1Google Scholar; Dering, , Diaries and Papers, pp. [6] However, the royalist fleet that came under Charles's control was not used to any advantage, and did not reach Scotland in time to join up with the royalist Engager army of the Duke of Hamilton before it was defeated at the Battle of Preston by the Parliamentarians. Oliver Cromwell defeats Charles II at the battle of Worcester. 9 Grey, , Debates, II, 68Google Scholar; Roberts, C., ‘Sir Richard Temple, the Pickthank Undertaker’, Huntington Library Quarterly, xli (1977– 1988), 137–55Google Scholar. VIIIGoogle Scholar. II, 178, 205 6, 228, 280–1; III, 264; IV, 113, 122, 226. Ironic and cynical, Charles took pleasure in retailing stories which demonstrated the undetectable nature of any inherent majesty he possessed. On the last evening of his life he was received into the Catholic Church in the presence of Father John Huddleston, though the extent to which he was fully conscious or committed, and with whom the idea originated, is unclear. Feature Flags last update: Mon Jan 18 2021 20:56:51 GMT+0000 (Coordinated Universal Time) The bishop of London was suspended from his office for not taking action against an anti-Catholic preacher. Danby had publicly professed that he was hostile to France, but had reservedly agreed to abide by Charles's wishes. [84] Diana, Princess of Wales, was descended from two of Charles's illegitimate sons: the Dukes of Grafton and Richmond. [8] Her son, James Crofts (afterwards Duke of Monmouth and Duke of Buccleuch), was one of Charles's many illegitimate children who became prominent in British society.[2]. 71, 191, 239–40, 255, 299; Grey, , Debates, I, 176–7, 186–8Google Scholar; Bodleian Library, Carte MS 36, fos. 132 Ibid., VII, 447; see also Exact Collection, p. 52. Charles did not believe the allegations, but ordered his chief minister Lord Danby to investigate. Browning, A. No need to register, buy now! 125, 174Google Scholar. Ronald Hutton looks for the real Charles II. Setting off from Falmouth after staying at Pendennis Castle, he went first to the Isles of Scilly, then to Jersey, and finally to France, where his mother was already living in exile and his first cousin, eight-year-old Louis XIV, was king. It quickly decided, though, that the government of the country should be by ‘king, Lords and Commons’. Many members feared that he had intended to use the standing army to suppress dissent or impose Catholicism. 14 Grey, , Debates, II, 25, 190Google Scholar; VI, 379. Both parliaments were instrumental in creating what became the Restoration Settlement – the Convention Parliament started the process up to December 1660 when it was dissolved while the Cavalier Parliament carried on with its work. "comments": true, For doubts over his intention to convert before 1685 see, for example. 44 It was still functioning in March 1671 (C.J., IX, 219). Power passed to five politicians known collectively by a whimsical acronym as the Cabal—Clifford, Arlington, Buckingham, Ashley (afterwards Earl of Shaftesbury) and Lauderdale. This data will be updated every 24 hours. [f] The Second Dutch War ended with the signing of the Treaty of Breda. He was captured and executed. 60 C.J., IX, 563, 610; Grey, , Debates, VI, 10Google Scholar. 104 Barrillon to Louis XIV, 4 and 11 Nov. 1680, 13 Jan. 1681 (n.s. Shaftesbury's power base was strengthened when the House of Commons of 1679 introduced the Exclusion Bill, which sought to exclude the Duke of York from the line of succession. 110 Ibid., IX, 642–3, 656, 658–62; Grey, , Debates, VIII, 34Google Scholar. His father was Charles I of England, who was executed after losing a war with Parliament. He was allegedly received into the Catholic Church on his deathbed. "metricsAbstractViews": false, p. 241Google Scholar; Hill, C., Century of Revolution (Edinburgh, 1961), p. 228CrossRefGoogle Scholar. 95 C.J., VIII, 659–61; IX, 412; Grey, , Debates, III, 450–9; IV, 182–7, 341–2; VI, 50–3Google Scholar. The official style of Charles II was "Charles the Second, by the Grace of God, King of England, Scotland, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, etc. Bond, M. (London, 1976)Google Scholar. 33 Marvell, , Poems and Letters, II, 315Google Scholar. His subjects resented paying taxes that were spent on his mistresses and their children,[83] many of whom received dukedoms or earldoms. Charles II dissolved Parliament itself on 24 January 1679 after conflict occurred following his dealings with France and his efforts to become an absolute ruler. 166–7; Witcombe, , Charles II, ch. Some even sought to confer the Crown on the Protestant Duke of Monmouth, the eldest of Charles's illegitimate children. The anniversary of the Restoration (which was also Charles's birthday)—29 May—was recognised in England until the mid-nineteenth century as Oak Apple Day, after the Royal Oak in which Charles hid during his escape from the forces of Oliver Cromwell. 16, 21, 25, etc. 98– 115Google Scholar and H.M.C., Portland, VIII, 15– 19Google Scholar tally closely with Grey. Charles arranged the marriage of his niece Mary to the Protestant Prince William of Orange in 1677 in a bid to re-establish his Protestant credentials. [21] The outgoing Parliament defined the electoral qualifications intending to bring about the return of a Presbyterian majority. The power of the Cabal waned and that of Clifford's replacement, Lord Danby, grew. Feature Flags: { Charles is forced to flee abroad. 67 An impeachment was prepared against Arlington only after an address against him had been rejected (C.J., IX, 296). 88 See Chandaman, C. D., The English Public Revenue, 1660–88 (Oxford, 1975)Google Scholar, the standard work on the subject. For a similar investigation in 1661, see Ibid., pp. England was enjoying peace while other European countries were at war; her seamen were building an Empire; the arts and sciences were in robust health. The Commons alone could legally grant him money. }, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society. In the same year, he openly supported Catholic France and started the Third Anglo-Dutch War. With many of the Scots (including Lord Argyll and other leading Covenanters) refusing to participate, and with few English royalists joining the force as it moved south into England, the invasion ended in defeat at the Battle of Worcester on 3 September 1651, after which Charles eluded capture by hiding in the Royal Oak at Boscobel House. On 14 May, he was proclaimed king in Dublin. S. P. [38] Plague cases ebbed over the winter, and Charles returned to London in February 1666. Charles II was the monarch of England, Scotland and Ireland during much of the latter half of the 17th century, marking the Restoration era. The Corporation Act 1661 required municipal officeholders to swear allegiance;[32] the Act of Uniformity 1662 made the use of the Anglican Book of Common Prayer compulsory; the Conventicle Act 1664 prohibited religious assemblies of more than five people, except under the auspices of the Church of England; and the Five Mile Act 1665 prohibited expelled non-conforming clergymen from coming within five miles (8 km) of a parish from which they had been banished. 48 Ibid., III 85–6, 319; VI, 73, 75, 78; C.J., IX, 407–9, 609–10. During the Civil War he lived with his father in Oxford 1642–45, and after the victory of Cromwell's Parliamentary forces he was in exile in France. 1675–6, pp. 22 Dering, , Diaries and Papers, pp. [42] On 23 June 1661, a marriage treaty was signed; England acquired Catherine's dowry of Tangier (in North Africa) and the Seven islands of Bombay (the latter having a major influence on the development of the British Empire in India), together with trading privileges in Brazil and the East Indies, religious and commercial freedom in Portugal and two million Portuguese crowns (about £300,000); while Portugal obtained military and naval support against Spain and liberty of worship for Catherine. In exchange, Charles agreed to supply Louis with troops and to announce his conversion to Catholicism "as soon as the welfare of his kingdom will permit". 134 Grey, , Debates, VIII, 154Google Scholar. 82 Ibid. For the last years of the Cavalier Parliament a loose grouping of Members, known as the Country party, had opposed the Court's influence in Parliament, particularly its attempts to secure votes through bribes and patronage. The much fuller An exact Collection of the Debates of the House of Commons held at Westminster, October 21 1680 (London, for Baldwin, R., 1689)Google Scholar differs considerably from Grey, but there are many similarities and internal evidence would suggest that it is substantially accurate. 34 C.J., VIII, 453, 478, 493, 499–501. 12 February 2009. The Long Parliament dissolved itself and there was a general election for the first time in almost 20 years. [85] John Wilmot, 2nd Earl of Rochester, wrote more lewdly of Charles: Restless he rolls from whore to whore 873; Ruvigny to Louis XIV, 4 Nov. 1667 (n.s. Edward Hyde, who had not known of either the marriage or the pregnancy, was created Earl of Clarendon and his position as Charles's favourite minister was strengthened. [43] Catherine journeyed from Portugal to Portsmouth on 13–14 May 1662,[43] but was not visited by Charles there until 20 May. After 1660, all legal documents stating a regnal year did so as if he had succeeded his father as king in 1649. 210–11Google Scholar). My text is taken from Macaulay, who wrote of the Cavalier Parliament of 1661–78: ‘The great English revolution of the seventeenth century, that is to say the transfer of the supreme control of the executive administration from the crown to the House of Commons, was, through the whole long existence of this Parliament, proceeding noiselessly, but rapidly and steadily. [78] He was buried in Westminster Abbey "without any manner of pomp"[77] on 14 February.[79]. 275, 279, 330–1; H.M.C. Charles II was the eldest surviving child of Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland and Henrietta Maria of France. [102], 17th-century monarch of England, Scotland and Ireland, Coat of arms of Charles II as king (outside Scotland), Coat of arms of Charles II used as king in Scotland, The traditional date of the Restoration marking the first assembly of King and Parliament together since the abolition of the English monarchy in 1649. There would be liberty of conscience and Anglican church policy would not be harsh. 12 Grey, , Debates, IV, 169Google Scholar. [25], In the latter half of 1660, Charles's joy at the Restoration was tempered by the deaths of his youngest brother, Henry, and sister, Mary, of smallpox. Partly to assuage public fears that the royal family was too Catholic, Charles agreed that James's daughter, Mary, should marry the Protestant William of Orange. [91] His arms as monarch were: Quarterly, I and IV Grandquarterly, Azure three fleurs-de-lis Or (for France) and Gules three lions passant guardant in pale Or (for England); II Or a lion rampant within a double tressure flory-counter-flory Gules (for Scotland); III Azure a harp Or stringed Argent (for Ireland). 85 When Sir William Coventry advanced a reasoned argument about the war, Secretary Williamson seized on it with relief: here at last was someone with whom one could argue rationally (Ibid., V, 297 301). [66] During the 1680s, however, popular support for the Exclusion Bill ebbed, and Charles experienced a nationwide surge of loyalty. 70 Ibid., II, 315; III, 24, 28–9, 107–8; V, 363–6. 32 H.M.C., Healhcote, p. 84Google Scholar; Bodleian Library, Carte MS 47, fos. MS 36916, fos. 24, 1679), the first English Parliament after the Restoration of Charles II to the throne. However, the new Lord Protector had little experience of either military or civil administration. 285–6; Grey, , Debates, I, 148–50Google Scholar; III, 36–40, 97–102, 3'7 9. [44] The channel port, although a valuable strategic outpost, was a drain on Charles's limited finances.[e]. Early life. For the most part, the actual revenue was much lower, which led to attempts to economise at court by reducing the size and expenses of the royal household[29] and raise money through unpopular innovations such as the hearth tax. A merry monarch, scandalous and poor.[86]. When the Convention Parliament met in March 1660 there was still some doubt about what action it would take to settle the country, and what influence the army under General Monck would have. Whig Thought and the Revolution of 1688–91. Although Charles acknowledged at least twelve illegitimate children by various mistresses, he left no legitimate children and was succeeded by his Catholic brother James. 41 Grey, , Debates, I, 165Google Scholar. 17 Grey, , Debates, III, 127Google Scholar; Dering, , Diaries and Papers, p. 175Google Scholar. 17– 19Google Scholar). [50] It remains unclear if Charles ever seriously intended to convert. 340––7, 741–5 and passimGoogle Scholar. Charles's coat of arms as Prince of Wales was the royal arms (which he later inherited), differenced by a label of three points Argent. The later entries are fuller and appear accurate. In fact, the Cabal rarely acted in concert, and the court was often divided between two factions led by Arlington and Buckingham, with Arlington the more successful. [11] Nevertheless, the Scots remained Charles's best hope of restoration, and he was crowned King of Scotland at Scone Abbey on 1 January 1651. The same MP later referred to bills as contracts between king and people Grey, , Debates, IV, 228Google Scholar. At around the same time, Anne Hyde, the daughter of the Lord Chancellor, Edward Hyde, revealed that she was pregnant by Charles's brother, James, whom she had secretly married. The commission was specifically ordered to investigate Carteret (C.J., IX, 87). Royalist supporters in the Spanish force were led by Charles's younger brother James, Duke of York. 130 For a perceptive analysis of the inconsistencies in the Whigs' ideology, see Behrens, ‘Whig Theory’. The House had resolved that a committee of the whole should consider how the militia could be improved, but it never did so (ibid, pp. PA2/24, f.97r-97v. 71 Grey, , Debates, V, 243Google Scholar. The Abhorrers—those who thought the Exclusion Bill was abhorrent—were named Tories (after a term for dispossessed Irish Catholic bandits), while the Petitioners—those who supported a petitioning campaign in favour of the Exclusion Bill—were called Whigs (after a term for rebellious Scottish Presbyterians). 114 Grey, , Debates, VIII, 13, 16, 261, 265, 270–1, 282Google Scholar; H.M.C. His prorogation from 1628-29 … Although previously favourable to the Crown, the Cavalier Parliament was alienated by the king's wars and religious policies during the 1670s. [48], In 1668, England allied itself with Sweden, and with its former enemy the Netherlands, to oppose Louis XIV in the War of Devolution. Looking back on Charles's reign, Tories tended to view it as a time of benevolent monarchy whereas Whigs perceived it as a terrible despotism. [59] In 1678, Titus Oates, who had been alternately an Anglican and Jesuit priest, falsely warned of a "Popish Plot" to assassinate the king, even accusing the queen of complicity. 175, 182, etc. [70], Thus through the last years of Charles's reign, his approach towards his opponents changed, and he was compared by Whigs to the contemporary Louis XIV of France, with his form of government in those years termed "slavery". [16], Charles made the Treaty of Brussels with Spain in 1656. Charles was baptised in the Chapel Royal, on 27 June, by the Anglican Bishop of London, William Laud. Charles II’s reign was marked by two tragic events in British history - the Great Plague of London and the Great Fire of London. 280–1Google Scholar; H.M.C., Finch, II, 99Google Scholar; H.M.C., Ormond, new ser., V, 541–2, 561–3Google Scholar. Puritanism lost its momentum. 105 Exact Collection, pp. 89 Diaiy of John Milward, pp. Although the Parliament voted the king an estimated annual income of £1,200,000, Charles had to wait many years before his revenues produced such a sum, and by then the damage of debt and discredit was irreparable. An English Parliament that lasted from 1640 until 1660. [15] Charles could not obtain sufficient finance or support to mount a serious challenge to Cromwell's government. Long Parliament. In 1672, Charles issued the Royal Declaration of Indulgence, in which he purported to suspend all penal laws against Catholics and other religious dissenters. Find the perfect charles parliament stock photo. In the same year, he openly supported Catholic France and started the Third Anglo-Dutch War.[56]. Despite the Stuart family connections through Henrietta Maria and the Princess of Orange, France and the Dutch Republic allied themselves with Cromwell's government from 1654, forcing Charles to leave France and turn for aid to Spain, which at that time ruled the Southern Netherlands. Protestant conspirators formulated the Rye House Plot, a plan to murder him and the Duke of York as they returned to London after horse races in Newmarket. In their talks, Henrietta told Louis XIV that Charles II wanted England and France to become allies. Finch, II, 97Google Scholar; Exact Collection, p. 202. 94 Ibid. 74 For the instability of court politics, which allowed court feuds to spill over into Parliament, see Clarendon, , Life, III, 144Google Scholar; Letters addressed from London to Sir Joseph Williamson, ed. 54–6Google Scholar. There was only the most cursory inspection of the accounts of the money borrowed for the disbandment (Ibid., pp. 273–4, 299. The brief diaries in H.M.C., Beaufort, pp. We use cookies to distinguish you from other users and to provide you with a better experience on our websites. On 5 February, the Covenanter Parliament of Scotland proclaimed Charles II "King of Great Britain, France and Ireland" at the Mercat Cross, Edinburgh,[9] but refused to allow him to enter Scotland unless he accepted the imposition of Presbyterianism throughout Britain and Ireland. 39 Bryant, A., Samuel Pepys, the years of Peril (London, 1948), pp. There would be pardons for nearly all his opponents except the regicides. A series of brief regimes, including the reinstalled Rump parliament, struggle to maintain order. Although much of the nation had sought war with Catholic France, Charles had secretly negotiated with Louis XIV, trying to reach an agreement under which England would remain neutral in return for money. caught between support for his brother and a hysterical reaction to ‘Popish’ plotting Beaufort, p. 109Google Scholar; Exact Collection, p. 242. Jnl, xxii (1979), 255–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Russell, C., ‘Parliamentary History in Perspective, 1604–29’, History, lxi (1976), 1– 27CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Russell, C., Parliaments and English Politics 1621–9 (Oxford, 1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar. 63 Clarendon was impeached after his dismissal, because his enemies wished to prevent his returning to office. 93 Grey, , Debates, II, 202, 204Google Scholar. 107 Sidney, H., Diary of the Times of Charles II, ed. [26] In the end nine of the regicides were executed:[27] they were hanged, drawn and quartered; others were given life imprisonment or simply excluded from office for life. However, England entered the period known as the English Interregnum or the English Commonwealth, and the country was a de facto republic led by Oliver Cromwell. 99–100; Grey, , Debates, VIII, 100, 102Google Scholar. 260–1. 317–19Google Scholar. for this article. Charles II was born in St James's Palace, London. chs. (P.R.O., Baschct, 130, 132). 92 Ibid., II, 200–1, 204, 209–11; III, 343. The death toll reached a peak of 7,000 per week in the week of 17 September. Charles spent the next nine years in exile in France, the Dutch Republic and the Spanish Netherlands. By the end of the battle Charles's force was about 1,000 and with Dunkirk given to the English the prospect of a Royalist expedition to England was dashed. As a result of the Second Dutch War, Charles dismissed Lord Clarendon, whom he used as a scapegoat for the war. Charles acquiesced to the Clarendon Code even though he favoured a policy of religious tolerance. 109 Ibid., IX, 598, 615–16. A great fire, however, destroyed Charles's lodgings at Newmarket, which forced him to leave the races early, thus inadvertently avoiding the planned attack. 119 Grey, , Debates, VIII, 166, 268Google Scholar; Exact Collection, pp. Louis XIV replied that he was willing to help England but in return he demanded that Charles become a Catholic. He never said a foolish thing, If you should have access and can't see this content please, English Constitutional Conflicts of the Seventeenth Century, Parliament in the Sixteenth Century: Functions and Fortunes, Parliamentary History in Perspective, 1604–29, The Parliamentary Diary of Sir Edward Dering, 1670–3, An exact Collection of the Debates of the House of Commons held at Westminster, October 21 1680, The Debates in the House of Commons Assembled at Oxford, Sir Richard Temple, the Pickthank Undertaker, Charles II and the Cavalier House of Commons, The Growth of Responsible Government in Stuart England, Letters addressed from London to Sir Joseph Williamson, The Whig Theory of the Constitution in the Reign of Charles II, Brief Historical Relation of State Affairs, Politics and the Appointment of Justices of the Peace, 1675–1720, Proceedings of the House of Commons touching the Impeachment of Edward, late Earl of Clarendon. Render date: 2021-01-18T21:05:59.840Z [62], Later in 1678, Danby was impeached by the House of Commons on the charge of high treason. The first (1642–1646) and second (1648–1649) wars pitted the supporters of Charles I against the supporters of the Long Parliament, while the third (1649–1651) saw fighting between supporters of King Charles II and supporters of the Rump Parliament. 28 Grey, , Debates, VI, 278–9Google Scholar. [51], Meanwhile, by a series of five charters, Charles granted the East India Company the rights to autonomous government of its territorial acquisitions, to mint money, to command fortresses and troops, to form alliances, to make war and peace, and to exercise both civil and criminal jurisdiction over its possessions in the Indies. "peerReview": true, His majesty shuts down the crooks and thieves in parliament. With the expensive disasters of the Anglo-Dutch War of 1665–67 the reputation of the restored king sank to its lowest … The escapades of Charles after his defeat at the Battle of Worcester remained important to him throughout his life. 18–36Google Scholar; Miller, J., James II: A Study in Kingship (Hove, 1978), pp. [49] Louis was to provide him with 6,000 troops to suppress those who opposed the conversion. The 1640s, when Charles was still young, his 30th birthday he! Brief regimes, including the reinstalled Rump Parliament was alienated by the House Commons. And RM images Camden Soc., 1884– 1885 ), II, 315 ; III 343... Civil War Charles offended Puritans by upholding the rituals of the States general appeared in November 1660 with Parliament. Them seriously 227 ; VII, 45 was eager to have been rightly sceptical about 's! 148–50Google Scholar ; Essex Papers, pp and RM images and Anglican condemned ( Bodleian Library, MS! Buccleuch, Richmond, Grafton and St Albans descend from Charles in unbroken line. 30 Haley, K. H. D., the Cavalier Parliament, Charles faced a political over! Allegedly received into the Treaty of Brussels with Spain in the same year, he was received! Made the Treaty of Dover, an alliance with his duties, but perhaps only Henry VIII had himself. Kindle and HTML full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent Google. John Milward, p. 109Google Scholar ; IV, 113, 122, 226 next day the were. The outgoing Parliament defined the electoral qualifications intending to bring about the return of a of... To provide him with 6,000 troops to suppress dissent or impose Catholicism, amazing choice, 100+ million high,... Many extra marital affairs, Baschet [ transcripts ( PRO 31/31, bundle ] 141 ) estates! 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